Questions & Answers on Tariqa Tijania

(Translated into English by Mr Taoufiq GAZOULIT)


Tariqa Tijania : Spiritual and Social way of Islam



1- QUESTION : I am a sister from La Rochelle in France. I would like to know if there is any Hadith which stipulates that the Fatihi and Jawharatu Al-Kamal could be recited. In fact, it is very difficult to prove that the mentioned above is an integral part of our Islamic spiritual practices. Isnt following the prophet our aim to love God? I have practiced for two years the orders DIKRS, but everybody warned me of the danger I am incurring.

1- ANSWER : A genuine Hadith reported by Abu Horaira, which says that he learnt from the prophet two series of Hadiths, therefore he is authorised to disclose the first series, but not the second one, as it may cost him his life, because common people would not understand them. The commentators of such Hadith underlined that the execution of common use second specifications and ordinary concepts of the Charia and Sunna will be enough to the good believer, except those well built introspectively, and capable to transcend towards the maximum.

On the other hand, Sidna Mohamed had inculcated in to his companion Hodeifa some secret teachings, the latter was not allowed to disclose. The Khalife Omar Ibn Khattab came sometimes to find out about what companion Hodeifa would have eventually got from the mouth of the Prophet, among other variant salats (blessings of Prophet) usually recited by believers, and the one called salat ibrahimia . Yet the son in law and Khalife of the Prophet Ali Ibn Abi Talib recited another salat. The messenger of God qualified him as the guardian of the science Mohamadiane city, saying I am the forum of the science and Ali is the means to access. Ali recited a salata which includes terms of FATIHI. This salat is partially thus worded: El fatihi lima oughliq wal khatimi lima sabaqa, naciri el haqq bil haqq(referring to the works of IBn El Atir, Ibn Qoteiba, in his Mouchkil el hadith) and Ibn el Faris (letter of favors of the salat).in fact the companions of the Prophet often recited litanies which they have not learned from the Prophet, without any denigration of the Gods messenger. The latter have heard one day from the mouth of another companion a special prayer. He had expressly the agreement of the messenger of God- other Hadiths are cited by Tabarany and other genuine commentators.

I mention, among others the Tabiyines (successors of the companions), Omar Ibn Abdel Aziz who recited prayers which are not at all part of the mohamadiane nomenclature. The list is a long one, according to Ibn Majah, in his Sunane, the companion Abdellah Ibn Messaoud used to recite a special salat: O my Lord, reserve your blessinngs and your mercies to the most sublime of your messengers, the Imam of pious Sidna Mohammed.

The Imam Chafiyi, promoter of the judicial rite which takes his name, had his own prayer. This prayer is commonly recited nowadays in all Moroccan mosques: O my god bless Sidna Mohammed as many times as the number of his community who had recited, or even omitted to recite it''.



2- QUESTION : I am a muslim who lives in Senegal, very attached to the Tijania order, i do not practice the Wadifa, but I know all its prayers, I have been told that a person who is not initiated to the Tijania order can not and should not recite it. For example I am taking the case of HIZBOU AL BAHRI, which I was told that who is not initiated to it and keeps reciting it, is exactly like somebody who is in a such delicate situation and who does not know how to swim, would you explain to me the Arcanum of the Tijania order ?

2- ANSWER : The Tijania order is an open way, and accessible to all Muslims from both sexes, provided they are pubescent, so to have access to is possible , even for those who do not accomplish some religious obligations, having said that , to be a good Tijani, you have to be a steady practising person, who makes a constant effort to remain within the norms of prophet Mohamud , which include both CHARIA and SUNA. When it comes to HIZB AL BAHRI mentioned above, is a special case, which is out of the ordinary, in fact it needs a special and particular initiation confirmed by a genuine permission, given by a great SHEIKH, otherwise , it is proven , in this case that the Sheikh Tijani himself did authorize it only to a few of his followers.



4- QUESTION : I would like to know what is Salat Al Fatih made of, which is an integral part of the Tijani Wird .could you explain to me its content, using a Latin transliteration ?


In Fatihithe the Prophet is qualified as the promoter of the opening of everything that is hidden and blocked for all previous messengers. He is also described as director of law by law, attributed to him by God, and also, he is the guide of believers to Gods path. Some have explained this opening by the first emergence of Sidna Mohammed, being the first human being emerged from the big void, even before the genesis or the creation of the world.


5- QUESTION : I would like to ask you few questions :

1- Where is exactly Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani buried ?

2- Has he got children? Where do they live ?

3- How many Tijani adepts are in the world ?

4- Could you help me to find a spiritual guide in Montreal ?

5- W hen, and who gave Sheikh Tijani the confirmation of his mission? And in which town ?

5- ANSWER : 1- Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani is buried in Fes, in an area called Blida, near Al Qaraouine University.

2- He had two sons: Mohammed Al Kabir, and Mohamed Al Habib, from two different mothers: Moubaraka and Mabrouka.

3- Only Mohammed Al Habib had children, whose number in Morocco only reaches a hundred, the rest are either in Ain Madi, in Algeria, or in Senegal..

4- It is quite difficult to count the number of Tijanis in the world, according to French statistic, the number of Tijanis , during the protectorate era , was over one million adepts only in Morocco, one million and half in Algeria, and eastern Sahara, and around 600.000 in Tunisia, in a recent interview with an Indonisian academic, he confirmed that the number of Tijanis in Indonisia is over Two millions adepts.

5- The great opening of Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani given to him by God , thanks to the intervention of the prophet Sidna Mohammed, started at Telemcen, and was crowned, at Chellala, and at Abi samghoun in the eastern Sahara. that is where prophet Mohammed allowed Sheikh Tijani to inculcate in his WIRD MOHAMMADIAN to those who require it, without any pre-conditions, apart from submission to the precepts and concepts of Islam, the approval to recite the WIRD, and the WADIFA could be given to any believer of both sexes, provided to be pubescent, and to agree upon the terms. It was in 1196 of HEGIREs. As to the WIRD it was based only on ISTIGHFAR and SALLAT AL FATIHI. These two elements have been crowned by the reciting of HILALA, at the beginning of the Thirteenth century of HEGIRE..


17- QUESTION : Iam interested by the book of Sheikh Umar Futiyu Tall "Rimah". Are you aware of any translation of the book ? Thank you for your patience, and congratulations for your site.

17- ANSWER : Concerning the book RIMAH, so far there is no translation, but it seems to me to have heard that a number of Senegalese people have showed interest, and willingness in translating some extracts of the book.


18- QUESTION : I would like to know if there is any translation in French or in English concerning the main book of Sheikh available, and how can I get hold of a copy ?

18- ANSWER : Concerning the translation of the Sheikhs book , I would like to point out that a number of Tijanis have agreed to translate JAWAHIR AL MAANI (pearls of ideas), but nothing was done so far in this respect. Having said that, I have been told by an Italian Tijani Moqaddem that he is in the process of translating Jawahir into Italian language. What I have done myself is the elaboration of the main elements of the order which were inserted, in the 7 quests of the order, introduction of the BOUGHYA of SIDI Larbi Benssayeh, which I have personally translated, and was published under the title Sufism afro-maghrebin during the 19th and 20th centuries in addition to my book about the order untitled LA TIJANIA: spiritual and social way.



24- QUESTION : A Tijani adept, who is possessed by a devil , has he got the right to consult a person who is able to help to get rid of devils (DJINN), taking into account that the person I am talking about, is not a Tijani adept, and he calls other non Tijani saints, in order to find a cure ?
24- ANSWER : According to the Sufism norms, a good Tijani should refer to God through his Sheikh, for any discomfort, the effect is sure, but it depends on the degree of attachment of the adept in question with his Sheikh, and to what extent he is totally convinced that the Sheikh is only a guide, and that only God has the supreme power, therefore you have to stick to God through your guide.


25- QUESTION : Could you tell me where to obtain the source of information on SIDI LARBI BENSSAYAH, his life, his route, his place in the court of the sheikh Tijani, and the time he lived? I have had for a long time a very strong spiritual relationship with this boss of the Zaouia of Rabat, which I regularly visit on my way to Fes. I would like to know more about him. I read on your website what you have said about him.

25- ANSWER : I was enchanted with your links of attraction to this grand Calif SIDI LARBI BENSSAYAH about whom the Sheikh Tijani would have said: before visiting me in Fes, go first to the SIDI LARBI MESSAYAHs zaouia in Rabat. Here there is an authorization of the Sheikh. As for the information about his CV, they are unfortunately scattered in numerous books of the order, particularly Kachf Al Hijab of SIDI AHMED SKIREJ. Nevertheless, an unpublished manuscript of the big Moqaddem Lahjouji contains almost 500 pages on the spiritual and cultural life of this grand Caliph. By reading his Boughia, you can foresee between lines the interesting elements of his exemplary and ideal behaviour, which has to reflect the spiritual life of every Tijani Mouride. I incite you to read notably the seven requests which echo these strong signs of a real mouride to reach the highlight of the approaches towards Hadrat al Qods (the plenary session of the presences). I underline here that I have already translated 7 requests through a commented adaptation in my work the afro Sufism from the Maghreb in 19th and 20th centuries.

31- QUESTION : I need your lighting about the Friday HADARAT, most of Tijanis from Senegal, seem to neglect it, they often satisfied with a small number of HILALA, instead of 1200, 1600, or morethey seem to maintain that when tijanis are gathered in a group, any number of HILALA is enough: 200,300,500. Does reciting HILALA in a group require a thousand or more ? What is the view of the order books in this respect, and particularly the Boughia ?

31- ANSWER : According to the Boughia, the minimum of HILALA should exceed 1000, and should be done during the last hour of Friday, until sunset. Some KHALIFES such as NADIFI recommended 300 times of HILALA. The reciting of HILALA in a group requires at least on thousand times of it. NADIFI used to greet adepts who live in the suburb of Marrakech, in order to recite HILALA with him, but the 300 times of Hilala was not enough. One case which is plausible: if a mouride joined the group, which has already stated the Hilala; then for him reciting the rest is enough, 200 or 300 instead of 1000 times.


34- QUESTION : I would be grateful if you could clear up the following points for me: I have read that SIDI AHMED TIJANI reported in his book Jawahir al Maani two hadiths:-when the prophet, (peace and blessing on him and his family) went one day to Fatimas, whereas Ali was sleeping in the room and Al Hassan and Al Hussein were playing next to her: In fact, you, these two and the sleeper, will be with me in thev same level in paradise, but this isnt true for others even among prophets and envoy; On the other hand, the prophet said in one of his hadith: we were, me, Ali and two lights before God and then he left us in the loin of Adam and kept moving us from loin to loin until we reached our grandfather Abd al-Mouttalib. Then I moved to the loin of Abd Allah and he moved to those of Abutalib. Then, our light reunited in Al Hassan and Al Hussein: they are in fact two lights of the light of the Lord of the Worlds.

1- Are these two hadiths reported in Al Jawahir al Maani ? ;

2- What are their degrees of authenticity ? ;

3- How can we interpret these hadiths knowing that a saint will never reach the level of a prophet ?

34-ANSWER : In general, a hadith is authenticated in accordance with the authenticity of the Sanad (chain of transmission). Or a million hadiths, according to Imam Ahmed Bin Hambal, was already in vogue in his time, i.e. the second century of hegira. Only a maximum of 10000 hadiths were authenticated and that is why the hadith reported by Boukhari and Mouslim in there Stories of Sahih does not exceed 5000. For Imam Malik in his Mouatta, he has chosen from among the 10000 hadith just 700 which constitute the current wording of Mouatta. Where does this profusion of apocryphal hadith come from? The origin of this euphoria is the Israelit extract from a falsified Bible and words so called prophetic, fabricated by theological organizations and their promoters. The Shiites who are enthusiastic supporters of Ali did not fail to participate, where hundreds of hadiths concerning Sidna Ali. Some of them may be authenticated without any reference to any Sanad. The lack of chain of transmission may be motivated not by none authenticity but by other motives more or less plausible. That is why we can come across some of these hadiths in Sufi books such as Jawahir al maani and the Boughia of Sidi Larbi Bessayah. Given the credibility of the authors of these books, they cannot be put off especially since the sublime position of Sidna Ali. The content of the hadith cited in your questions are surely among the hadiths unsupported by the sanad, but that could be authenticated. A hadith was reported on Sidna Ali about which the prophet said: I am the city of science and Ali is the Guardian. In other hadiths, the prophet advocated that Sidna Ali is considered as his brother, that Lalla Fatima is the most sublime lady and that her two sons Hassan and Hussein are the Lords of paradisiacal youth. For that, to compare the prophet and messenger of Allah, a core principle in Islam asserted the fact to qualify a person, who is not a prophet, of an attribute apparently higher than those of the prophet does not imply the supremacy of this person. Here, it is only a matter of prerogative which does not involve any prominence.



39- QUESTION : I would love to consult a bibliography about the Tijani order in French.

39- ANSWER : My book the Tijania: spiritual and social way is inserted in my site, you can always consult it.


49- QUESTION : What should we do if we doze during the wadifa ?

49- ANSWER : To avoid dozing during the dikr, it is necessary, according to the authentic suna, to take its provisions so the spirit of the mouride remains present. If in a case of act of God, the rosary is detached from your hand whilst drowsing. You just have to intercept it as you can and continue your dikr, regardless of the exact number of dikrs you would have done. But, if whilst drowsing, you drop your rosary without realising, then you will have to wash again. In any case, we must avoid making the dikr when we sense the need to sleep, as the prophet underlined.



51- QUESTION : Would you know any ZAWIYAS, Tijani adepts, or Sheikhs in France? I will be very happy to meet them, in order to rub with people I share with the love of Saint Sheikh Ahmed Tijani (RAA).
51- ANSWER : As to ZAWIYA of the Tijani order existing in France, I have known fifteen when I visited France in 1944. The most important ZAWIYA is the one situated in GENNEVILLIERS, which is still full of Tijani adepts. Today, there are hundreds all over France, particularly in the region of LYON.


55- QUESTION : Is there any manuscript written by Sheikh Tijani ?
55- ANSWER : There is no such manuscript written by the Sheikh, with his proper hands, to my knowledge there is a letter, which I have a copy of . In this letter The SHEIKH allows one of his adepts to recite the DIKR. I equally possess a (manuscript of Jawahir al Maani), which was presented by the KhALIF SIDI LARBI BENSSAYAH as being the original one, this document was countersigned at the last page by the SHEIKH, but it was not written by his proper hands.


57- QUESTION : I just arrived to France; I live for the time being in AIX-EN-PROVINCE, what is the nearest ZAOUIA to my place ?
57- ANSWER : ZAOUIAS that I know are situated in Paris, the oldest one is the one in GENNEVILLIERS, their number has reached in 1945 fifteen ZAOUIAS, and it is difficult to differentiate between a ZAOUIAS and a mosque, where the number of oratories exceeds 300. As to the addresses, all you have to do , when you are around areas inhabited by muslins ask about places of these oratories, without mentioning their nature , because most of people see these places as a place for prayer.


58- QUESTION : Could you tell me about other sources in French or Arabic at least concerning our dear TARIQA, in order to be more aware ?
58- ANSWER : As to references in Arabic about the TARIQA, I would recommend, what they usually call the code of the TARIQAwhich is la Boughia of Sidi Larbi Benssayeh, the first publication goes back to 1304 hegir, it was published in Cairo, other editions have seen the light during the 14th century. Recently, I have published a small encyclopaedia in 3 volumes, about Sufism between the Machreq and the Maghreb, I have included a hundred page about the TARIQA, including the SHEIKH of the order and his KHALIFS.


65- QUESTION : After the recital of FATIHA loudly, some reckon that we have to say AMIN, loud, other say with a low voice.
65- ANSWER : The word AMIN should be pronounced loud, as it is recommended by the malikete rite, it is notoriousness in all mosques and zaouias to recite it, in one and loud voice.


68- QUESTION : I am from Senegal, and a fervent follower of the brotherhood of the Great Sheikh TIJANI, I have read with interest, your texts and contribution that you have inserted on the web. I learned a great deal from Your book la TIJANIA : spiritual and social way. Professor, Iam looking for two books, and I need your help. The first one is called "Jawahir Al Maani" of Sheikh TIJANI, the second "Arrimah" (lances) of Sheikh Omar El Fouti. Could you help me to get these books which are of great interest to me? Would you have the French or English version in an electronic medium? These will help me tremendously to carry on my spiritual education.
68- ANSWER : I am informing you that the two texts JAWAHIR AL MAANI and RIMAH are inserted in the same publication, available in a library in RABAT, I will be ready to send you a copy if you wish, as to the French translation of these two books, I do not know any, apart from an Italian lady who is in the process of elaborating a translation done by an Italian Moqaddem Sheikh Abdessamad. As to the first chapters of the Boughia of Sidi Larbi Bensayah, which is not translated, have been the object of a translation adapted and commented in French, in a book that I published entitled The afro-maghreban Sufism in the 19th and 20th centuries. It deals with what I call the seven requests, which sum up the Sufism thought, as it is conceived by the order, and which constitute the height of the ideal behaviour of the Tijani follower.


71- QUESTION : I learnt about your site through Google and its datum about Sufism, in fact I am not sure about an important definition concerning the Tijania order, such as : Achchakh al Mourabbi, I will be very happy to read you about this theme.
71- ANSWER : The word sheikh is used only to indicate the promoter of the Tijania order: SIDI AHMED TIJANI, in some African regions, and other regions , it is used in order to appoint a moqaddem, in fact there is an increasing number of moqaddems who, by definition, give to the initiated person the permission to recite the dhikr, ,, that is how he becomes a TIJANI, otherwise, he remains a sympathiser, the Sheikhs morabbis are the moqaddems, who are highly qualified to educate those who recite dhikr, while they are still in he process of initiation. Their number according to the Sheikh does not exceed 600 moqqadems, among human beings, and 300 among Djinns. The moqaddem could reach a higher level in the hierarchy initiatory, without being able to assume this title.


72- QUESTION : Why do we spread the sheet in the middle of the circle of the wadifa, and the hilalai? And who was the first one to institute it ?
72- ANSWER : The sheet we spread, as you mentioned, during the hilala, as well the wadifa, was done during the sheikhs era, that was motivated by the fact that the promoter of the order recited the wadifa with his adepts, in the long corridor of his house, the zaouia was not built yet, this IZAR or sheet was destined to cover the ground, such as a carpet for a prayer. It is not a must to spread a sheet during a these dikrs. The zaouias have the habit since then to use the sheet by reminiscence.


74- QUESTION : Would you kindly inform me of the mystic of Salat Al Fatihi and on the initiation of the tariqa Tijanias midshipmen on the word ?
74- ANSWER : The Salat Al Fatihi is not the Sheikh SIDI AHMAD TIJANIs own. It had been inspired to another previous Sheikh: AL BAKRI ESSADIKI. His rank in the hierarchy of prayer

Son grade dans la hirarchie des oraisons, affairant la louange du Prophte, est spcifique. Elle vaut, selon son propre promoteur, 600 mille fois une rcitation ordinaire. Le cheikh tijani a reu une autorisation spciale, qui assure ce dhikr un grade exclusif. Le cheikh tijani, aprs avoir atteint le stade de ple, a t inspir pour la remplacer par Jawharat Al Kamal, labore par insufflation prophtique. Il a reu, alors, l'incitation reprendre Salat Al Fatihi. Quant votre seconde question, concernant le grade auquel aspire le mouride tijani en rcitant son wird, il ne doit gure dpasser la sublime intention de s'assurer l'agrment d'ALLAH et Sa grce. Le vrai initi n'ose gure aspirer s'arroger une quelconque ouverture, par le biais de ce symbole spcifique de la tariqa. Le cheikh a tenu avertir son mouride, en lui enjoignant d'viter toute vellit dans ce sens.


75- QUESTION : Can the one who is born Tijani, and who has not taken the wird yet, but deliberately attends the sessions of Fridays hadra, leave the litany before its end, if he has mandatory homework to do ?
75- ANSWER : Born Tijani means being registered by the divine destiny, as a member of the tijani order. This means that we do not always have the choice, since no one can be registered as a member of other spiritual paths. Whoever is in this case and was has not yet been committed by a special permission cant even attend the wadifa, and if he does, he would have the entire attitude to commit himself by leaving the litanies before the end. But there is a moral task which is based on prophetic traditions not to undo a moral duty by a break. Within the dikr in such a case, it is a moral obligation not to integrate wadifa if one is sure of not being able to complete the prayer. But, as regards to wird, one is free to break in some cases of act of God, and to resume later on.


88- QUESTION : What are the miracles attributed to Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani ? Is there a work evoking them ? Quel crdit faut-il y apporter ? What did the Sheikh think about miracles (Karama) ?
88- ANSWER : Sheikh Tijani said, as reported by many books elaborated by major scholars of the order, that the rectitude pious is better than a thousand miracles. During the Sheikhs time, nobody dared to share any miracle coming from the sheikh, and nobody dared to keep any. But after the death of the sheikh, many characters of the order had allowed themselves to elaborate some miracles. Nevertheless, some of the sheikhs behaviours comprised unwittingly ample miracles, which were appreciated by the order followers without saying a word. As to the koranic value of a miracle, every religious Islamic authority sees nothing but the reflections of the great miracles of the promoter of Islam Sidna Mohammed.


89- QUESTION : Is the moqaddem in the tijani order, who gave the award a lazima to a disciple, regarded as his Sheikh, or can the disciple take the award from a moqaddem, and have another one as his sheikh ?
89- ANSWER : The word sheikh is granted only to Sidi Ahmed Tijani alone, in all the orders books. But in some African areas, mourides allow themselves to qualify the moqaddems as sheikhs. It is a mere convention over there, which is not opposed by the order. The main thing is to have the conviction that moqaddem is nothing but an approved delegate of the sheikh, who is the only source of madad, and that the tijani mourid should be content with one sheikh who is Sidi Ahmed Tijani. Otherwise, an immediate break will follow. By the way, the fact is not peculiar to the Tijani order, as reported by many Sufis. This does not prevent the mourid from getting permission from another moqaddem of the same order. The case of Caliph Omar Ibn Khattab, who referred to the torah of Moses, has aroused the anger of the prophet Mohammed.

95- QUESTION : Does reciting salat al-fatihi need permission from a Moqaddemm ?
95- ANSWER : Reciting SALAT AL FATIH does not necessarily need any permission from any Moqaddem.


98- QUESTION : Are they any expected translations of Muhammad al Hafidh Tijanis books ?
98- ANSWER : To my knowledge there is no translation of books written by Cairos Moqaddem MUHAMMAD AL HAFIDH TIJANI.


100- QUESTION : Could the SHEIKHs disciple, who has taken the wird, pray behind an IMAM who does not recite the basmala loudly ? Did the SHEIKH recite the basmala loudly, during the prayers of soubh, maghreb, and al-icha ?
100- ANSWER : Reciting the basmala is a must in all 5 prayers, and not only in some of them. But Imam Malik has authorised this narration with a low voice, whereas in the order, it is a must to be recited loudly simply because the SHEIKH used to do so.


110- QUESTION : Two years ago I saw the waking state the prophet Mohammed, with whom I met briefly, following this meetng. I started doing my 5 canonical prayers, therearfter; I read a book by Amadou Hmapata Ba: life and teaching of Tierno Bpkar. What made me discover a little sufism and particularly the Tijani order, with all its wirds and litanies, but some wirds can not be recited without the authorization of a Moqaddem, I asked God in my prayers to introduce me top the order, some time later , in the waking state, I received a formula( in arabic, while iam not an arab), with a number of different times to recite, either in a melodious recitation, or in simple words ; Finally, I had another dream where I saw the face of the person who gave region, or in Liyon, iam planing to return to the order, I need to know whether to go to Algeria, , in the mother house or fez . Should we recite the Jouhara 11 or 12 times, and what is the difference me this formula, who is nothing but Hussein IBN Ali Ibn Abu Talib (son in law of the prophet). I would like to know if one can talk about dreams he had to his wife or members of his family. How would I know the significance of this formula, which was given to me, knowing that such thing should not be disclosed to know the address of a Zawiya Tijania in the Paris between these two figures ?
110- ANSWER : There are two types of dreams taking place in the waking are just a vision. The pious dream is called by the prophet in an authentic hadith true deam. This dream is considered by the prophet in the same hadith, as good news, sent directly to the person concerned or through a third person. A dream can not be interpreted by anyone, a degree of piety is necessary. In another hadith, any dream, which is not interpreted, remainsspatially unresolved between heaven and earth. The first interpretation of this dream would be recognized as appropriate, even if it is misinterpreted, so we must be carefull not to tell the dream to anybody, to avoid any risk of confusion. In a third hadith, the believer has to interpret the dream favourably, in this case, you can tell a dream to members of your family (your wife or somebody else), if it fulfills this condition. As to the second question concerning Zaouias in France, already in 1945, they were in Paris and the suberbs 14 Zaouyas, all led by one moqaddem. Other zaouyas have since emerged . Regarding your integration within the order, you can receive authrization anywhere, provided that the moqaddem concerned is up to standards . As to the difference between two options concerning the jouhara (11 or 12), it is just a very simple question, in which we saw a real problem . The option on the recitation of the jouhara with 11 grains goes back to the beginning of the order, before the death of Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani, It appeared particvularly in the jawahir al maani , but the other option, of 12 grains, is the most recent, ie: is the one wich abolished the first one, such as the case of the prophets hadiths, where the recent ones abolished the previous ones.


112- QUESTION : It is impossible for me to go to the Friday afternoon sance to do the hilala because of professional reasons. It is prohibited to make the 1000 la ilaha illa Allah at the office, so what to do in this case? Do some in silence? Knowing that in this case, it is impossible to take off shoes, sit on the ground and face the qibla. I was told that the ziyara of Moulay Driss Zerhoum in Fez in not allowed. Yet, and to my modest point of view, this great saint is not a Cheikh with a Tariqa, but he is, for sure, among ahl al bayt, to whom have referred all the forms of salawat of the Prophet, including the fatihi anf the jawharat el kamala: (waalaa allihi...).
112- ANSWER : All the obstacles you have mentioned are not obstacles at all. You can do your dikr entirely in your office without taking your shoes off, because according to an authentic hadith, the believer may do his prayer whilst wearing shoes. Only the jawharat al kamal cannot be recited whilst on board a ship, plane or car. As to the Ziara, all iniciated or mourid, in whatever tariqa, and not only in the tariqa Tijani, cannot proceed to the Ziara of another Cheikh, whoever he may be and whatever his degree of descendance to the Prophet, in a context of allegiance. Otherwise, it is allowed.


116- QUESTION : The cheikh who has initiated me has informed me on only two affiliation conditions : Commitment to practise the wird and the wadifa throughout my life and the prohibition to practise any other wird or litany, of other tariqas or of living or dead saints. Later, I was told that there were other conditions. I am now asking if my initiation is valid or if I have to renew it by recalling all the other conditions ?
116- ANSWER : Your initiation remains valid but youre in the obligation of trying to assimilate the other conditions, which are in principal common to all the initiated people. Thus, they are not peremptorily essential to an initiation. But, for the two conditions cited above, certain khalifs of Cheikh add a third one which remains in turn obligatory for any Muslim. This means believe that the Cheikh, whoever he is, is merely a conscience director and a servant of God.


117- QUESTION : The spiritual commitment to a Cheikh who has initiated you implies that he is the only one who has the power to guide us in the Tariqa and answer our questions. Are we allowed to address any cultivated person to ask questions on a precise point of the tariqa ?
117- ANSWER : Nothing prevents an initiated tijani to address another Tijani moqaddem to insure the veracity of an idea or the existence of other options. But here, you have to stay aware of the value of one at the expense of the other. Here it only refers to a praiseworthy effort in one or another that are both praiseworthy.


118- QUESTION : Does the prohibition to practise other wirds or recite other litanies apply to the invocations of protection or of adoration of Allah, taught by the sounna and reported by hadiths? (Examples among hundreds: hasbiyallahou, la ilaha illa houwa, aleyhi tawakkaltou, wa houwa rabboul archil azime-7 times), the invocation of Abou Darda (Allahoumma anta rabbi 7 times the verse of the throne etc). Or does it only apply to litanies composed of foreign people to the tariqa ?
118- ANSWER : To be a really good initiated Tijani, one has to apply to the spirit and to stick to authentic hadiths of the Prophet. We may recite all the mohammadian daawats as well as those of the tariqa, as they are themselves necessarily mohammadian.


122- QUESTION : I read in your site that wadifa can be granted to everybody, without authorisation, could I be allowed to recite it ?
122- ANSWER : The wadifa could be granted to anybody whether it is a male or a female, a girl or pubescent boy, but with authorisation of a moqaddem.


123- QUESTION : Hizb Sayfi replaces 41 times sourate Al kadr, could I recite it, and how many times a day ?
123- ANSWER : In order to recite Hizb Sayfi, a specific authorisation given by a confirmed moqaddem is necessary.


131- QUESTION : First, I would like to express my gratitude for your work that is very useful for my personal development. May ALLAH reward you abundantly. I have a few questions concerning Dalail al Khayrat and the spiritual education in the Tariqa :

1- Is it necessary to have an authorization to recite the shaykh al Jazoulis book ?

2- If so, do the muqaddems of the tariqa have this permission ?

3- What is the spiritual education by the himma ?

4- Is spiritual education only filled with the wird, the attachment to the Koran and the sounna in this Tariqa ?

5- Must you be an affiliated member to recite the Jawharat Al Kamal ?

Once again, thank you for your work.

131- ANSWER : 1- DALAIL AL KHAYRAT is a specific recitation given to insiders, but as a congratulatory recitation of the prophet, it may be a recitation for any insider, whatever his direction may be. As to tijani insiders, no permission can be given for reciting wirds which are not included in the Tijani catalogue. Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani carefully kept one copy in his private library. It was one of the rare manuscripts that were included in this library.

2- Moqaddem of the Tijani order does not permit the recitation, being of specific exclusiveness.

3- as regards to the spiritual education of the HIMMA, it is first to specify HIMMAs maximum scale, whose creating role is not to be demonstrated. The optimal role of this HIMMA is of creativity without peer. But, is this HIMMA not an insiders irreversible commitment to Allahs will? Is it not the transcendent conducting line towards the sublime order of God?.




132- QUESTION : Following a visit to the following site, I have a few questions to ask. I learned that Sheikh Al Sanusi had studied with Sheikh Tijani. I understand that he has subsequently left Fez to join the person who would become his teacher, Sheikh Ahmed Ibn Idriss. I would like to know if leaving the Tijania order is permitted in the exceptional case of great saints, whose destiny is particular. In such, Sheikh Al Sanussi became the organiser and educator of an order which played a major role in the history of Muslims and the world. I will also mention Sheikh Ahmadu Bamba, the founder of the Tariqa Muridiyya, who, after practising the Qadiri, Shadhili and Tijani wirds, founded his own brotherhood by order of the Prophet. I would like to correct the words of Shiekh Tijani. He warned against the act of leaving his order. I have the impression that these words concern his disciples in general, but not the individuals cited in particular. I do not know why. Could you enlighten me on this subject ?
132- ANSWER : In response to your questions, I would like to emphasize that the principle which you mentioned on the warning to any insider to leave the Tijani order as you say. There are two possible cases in this matter. The first when the Sheikh Tijani would have granted an authorization of Tabarouk, leaving the new initiated a full opportunity to leave the order to another one. The second case seems to be that the Sheikh had given exceptional permission to recite another dikr, in addition to the Tijani dikr. This is the case of Moulay Abdessalam Addarir in Fez, who remained committed to the Tijani word while assuming the right to grant his own dikr to any insider, even Tijani. Had he received permission from the Sheikh? Only he knows. Nevertheless, his rank within the Tijani hierarchy encourages us to give him credibility. In another similar case, Tijani Moqaddem Skirej Ahmed mentioned in Kachf Al Hijab, Maa Al Ainayn, Changuiti, as a Tijani Moqaddem, whilst aligned to other orders, such as the Qadiria and naqchbandia orders. But the moqaddem had to assume full responsibility, as the main promoter of the order Sidi Larbi Benssayeh in his book The boghiat does not accept more of these cases except that of Moulay Abdessalam Addarir, who did not criticize him as he is not used to doing so.


137- QUESTION : I have a comment on the statistics that you displayed on your site indicating that 90% of Senegalese are Tijanis. As a Senegalese, I think it is very exaggerated. Ill take the example of the Toba region, where almost the entire population is made up of Mourides of Sheikh Amadou Bamba, not counting other orders such as the Qadiryia. In addition to that, in the capital, half of the population belongs to any order at all. Unfortunately, I have no figures in my hands but those are my own views.
137- ANSWER : Youre right. My indications were based on an old census of the time when the parliament had already 4/5 of Tijani deputies.


138- QUESTION : Do Ttijani adepts practice the samaa or the religious singing ?
138- ANSWER : As far as Tijani adepts are concerned their religious singing includes the Borda and the hamzia of Imam Al Boussairy, as well as poems composed by Tijanis in honour of the prophet (ssl), or of the sheikh SIDI AHMED TIJANI, or his caliphs.


142- QUESTION : I am a Senegalese tijani who works in Benin at Porto Novo. Over here, there is no Tijani Zawiya, and therefore I do not have the opportunity to perform the Wadifa, nor the Fridays Hailala with a group of tijanis. In addition to that, I am a bit lazy and I do not seem to be able to do my homework related to the Tariqa properly. I have to add that I took the wird from a master, but I did not follow his path, i.e. the path of Seikh Ibrahim Niass, but that of El Haj Malik Sy. Should I renew my wird ?
142- ANSWER : If there is no zawiya in your community, you can perform the wadifa as well as the Friday Hailala on your own. As to the source where you got the wird, it does not matter which moqaddem initiated you to the order whether it is Sheikh Ibrahim Niass or haj malik Sy . As to your laziness, try to do both your prayers and dikrs the best you can. It is important to do both of them within the appropriate timing.

144- QUESTION : I have been a tijani since the age of ten (now I am 23 years old), and I was initiated to the order at the age of 13. My father is a khalife of Sheikh al Islam Ibrahim Niass, and for the time being, I am a khalif. On the other hand, I am an engineer in operational research (training at Houari Boumediane University in Algiers). I have tremendously appreciated your work but I have not seen any trace nor the role played by Ibrahim Niass, yet you certainly know that he has got at least 100 million followers throughout the world (1990 estimate). Most of them are based in Mauritania, Nigeria, and also in West Africa. I therefore feel a kind of injustice towards him. On the other hand, I have found in the section devoted to zawaiyas mistakes concerning populations and percentage, so I am reporting all this to you with complete objectivity ?
144- ANSWER : In response to your letter, I would like to stress that Sheikh Al Islam Ibrahim Niass is a great friend of mine, with whom I have spent a good number of years. I am aware of his masterful work and the magnificent message by which millions of Africans have known Islam and the Tijani order. I always tried to go to Kaoulakh to visit him, whenever I am in Dakar. He loved me so much and made sure to send me some of his books, before they are published. I am convinced that he did not need my views, but he consulted me thanks to the intimate affection that binds us. The relationship continues even after his death with his son the great scholar and moqaddem Abdellah Niass. My link with the Niass family is close. I am in the process of developing a well documented synthesis in French to insert in my site. As to mistakes concerning the populations and the percentages, particularly in Africa, I am doing nothing but putting together all information concerning this topic, thinking to put them together and compare them, once a sufficient quantity is available. I would like to thank you in advance for our fraternal gesture, asking you to keep me informed of everything that you know about this issue.


162- QUESTION : Is there hal (hadra) in the tijania order? And did it exist during Sheikhs Sidi Ahmed Tijani era ?
162- ANSWER : The hal is a state of ecstasy whose luminance and theophanic falls affect the heart and shake the body. It is not in principle linked to a dikr. As to the hadra, its a state where the tijanis feel attracted to a certain act that inspires them to stand in a rhythmic movement while doing the dikr including the hilala. This event does not go as far as the Sheikhs era, who was always following the prophets behaviour, and his companions for that matter. Gods messenger said the best dikrs that I was able to recite is nothing other than hilala. In such a performance, the prophet (peace be upon him) was sitting down, in order to concentrate better.

164- QUESTION : I am an American Muslim and I am interested in the Tijania order. I have three questions for you and thank you in advance for your answers. 1- How can we develop or advance the spirituality in the order, while getting rid of spiritual discomfort ?. 2- Is there a mouride/sheikh relationship in the tijania order ? 3- Why dont some sheikhs of the order bear the beard, as it is clearly described in the Sunna, and that most of schools in Islam confirm that it is compulsory ?
164- ANSWER : 1- The only way to grow in the order is to follow the sunni behaviour indicated by the sheikh and fill all the spare time by blessing on the prophet, including salat al faith, which is an equivalent to 600.000 other salats. This vaporization is general for all mourides in every single order, before the advent of sheikh tijani, as the salat al faith was already known and recited by other sheikhs. 2- The relationship between mouride and sheikh in the order is the foundation of any initiation based on love of Allah and the commitment to suna. 3- The wearing of beards is initially a sign of distinction between the two sexes. It is only a matter of certain bits to show this sign, that is why a hadith of the prophet (peace be upon him) (the only hadith that exists) in this matter, reported by Muslin in his digest, and commented on by the imam Oubi , referred to this reductive state of the beard ; but there is another one about the companion of the prophet Ben Abdellah Omar , who advocates the need for the lengthening of the beard , but here it is a matter of a maoukouf hadith . It is therefore not recommended in the sunna, to eliminate entirely the virile mark.

168- QUESTION : I wanted to know why the fatiha is recited at the beginning of Lazim and the Wadifa ?
168- ANSWER : Concerning the recitation of wird lazim, Fatiha is not mandatory but it is recommended. Only the basmala is because there is a hadith which states that anything important is to be reinforced by bismillah".


169- QUESTION : I would like to know if this wird complies with the Koran and sunna and if it is possible to recite it: aoudou billahi mina samii al alim mina shaytani rajim (once), al-fatiha (once), azstaghfirou allah (100 times), surat 33- verse 56 ( once), allahoumma salli ala sayidina mohammed wa sallim (100 times), la ilaha illa allah ( 100 times), sourate 37- verse 180-182 (once) ?
169- ANSWER : Indeed, the wird of the Tariqa Tijania is based on the precepts of the Koran and the sunna. It was composed in a manner that is impossible to change. It first includes the fatiha, the first sura of the Koran, preceded by taaoud and the basmala which you mentioned, then istighfar, and fatihi, (i.e. the blessing of the prophet). You mentioned in your question a summarized blessing which can be recited only in an exceptional cases of coercion because the recitation of al fatiha is absolutely necessary. The third dikr of this wird is the hilala, which was integrated just after four years after the first two dikrs in the year 1196 (higeriya), because the hilala, according to suna, is one of the best dikrs of which the recitation requires an early treatment by the first two dikrs . As to the koranic references , in this case are istighfar verse 180, sura 37)assafate, and sura 33, verse 58 alahzab, concerning the blessing of the prophet ( peace be upon him) . As far as the wadifa is concerned, which is the third dikr, after the two wirds ( morning and evening), its recitation is based on a hadith reported by the companion of the prophet ( peace be upon him), Abi said Al Khondri : he who recites the prayer : Astaghfirou ALLAH alladi Lailaha ILLa Houwa Hayou Al Qayoum sees absolve all sins committed , whatever their size.


172- QUESTION : I am an Italian converted to Islam and Ive been practising the rites of the Tariqa tijania for ten years. I live in Morocco but unfortunately I dont speak Arabic. Since my entrance in the Tariqa, an anomaly disconcerted me: I have been taught the jawarat al kamal with: bi mouzouni er-riahi but everyone recites: Bi el mouzouni al arrbahi. The book Jawahir El Maani in my possession says Riahi and the comments refer to this word. When I ask questions about this, the answers are confusing and without references. Would it be possible that the word was changed, left by our sheikh? If this is the case, why did we do that? Thank you for willing to answer this question.
172- ANSWER : The two versions concerning this part of the Jouharat Al Kamal exist in certain works of the tariqa. Some opt for the first one and others like Sidi Larbi Benssayeh in his Boghiat choose the second one. In the manuscript text of the Boghiat, I personally raised the rectification made by the mighty moqaddem Sidi Mhamed Nadifi, referring without doubt to the initial text of Jawahir al Maani. However, to my sens, there are two reasons that provoked this differentiation. One is commonplace concerning the punctuation, where it is naturally easy to change the ba into ya. But, the other reason consists in the revisions made after the inscription of the first manuscript on Jawahir Al Maani in the year 1213 of the hegira, meaning 17 years before the death of sheikh Tijani, and dead in 1230. Other changes were made concerning the Jawhara Al Kamal itself, where the initial text of Jawahir Al Maani talks of eleven Jouhara in the wadifa instead of twelve, which provoked controversy in certain African countries where some have opted for the version of eleven like the Hamaouiyines. But, for the Boghiat, it does not concern a punctuation error because all the zones referring to the Boghiat opt for the ba and for the twelve grains of the Jouhara.


173- QUESTION : I have allowed myself to contact you in order to obtain help. I am a young Moroccan living in France. My grandfather from Taza was the great fqih of this town. I am interested in my grandfathers writings. Amongst his books, one is called: kitab el kanz el madfoun oua sir el maknoun sair an mahd koun fayakoun, min imla sayidouna oua shaykhouna oua mawlana ahmad tijani radial ah anhou. Its author is therefore the sheikh Ahmad Tijani, but its my grandfathers writing. In my opinion, he must have copied it from another book. Do you know of this book from the cheikh Tijani ?
173- ANSWER : All of Cheikh Tijanis work is known. The one you have cited isnt. There is even what we call le kounnach al maknoun, attributed to the Cheikh and that is found in Ain Madi in Algeria. It is said to be the only copy of Jawahir Al Maani.


174- QUESTION : Thank you a thousand times for the answer to my question about the recitation of Kalmal Al Jawahir, with the word rbahi or riahi. Finally, I was able to clarify this point with your accurate answer, and references. Your availability encourages me to ask your opinion about the attendance of women in the zaouia and reciting Jouharat el kamal. In the region of Souss, there are a lot of zaouyas, and I had the privilege to visit almost all of them. But rare are those who keep a room for women. In general, women are discouraged to come to the meeting on Fridays, on the pretext that it is not required to perform prayer in group. I was even advised not to recite jouharat el kamal in the wadifa and to replace it with 20 of salats al fatihi. When I asked about the references of such assertions, nothing precise was given to me. To my knowledge, nothing as such is quoted in jawahir el maani. Would you clarify this position of a large number of tijanis, and also give me your personal opinion on this matter? Thank you in advance for your answer, and your patience. Be sure professor of my great esteem to your person.
174- ANSWER : As far as a woman is concerned, she can recite jawharat el kamal like any man, except when the two sexes among tijanies must replace the jouhara by the fatihi20 times. Concerning your second question, in principle, tijanis whom I have known for the last five decades, deny their wives to go to the zawiya because, according to an authentic hadith of the prophet, the private room of each woman in her house is her real mosque.


176- QUESTION : I am Senegalese and I belong to the Tijany brotherhood. I read a passage in the book of Sheikh Ahmadou Tall called niche of secrets, and I would like you to help me. He talks about a mystical method to discover the divine names to be used. It seems that this method is also taught by Imam al Bouni in his book Chamsoul my arifil koubra . But since my written Arabic is poor, and that I do not know how to evaluate my mystic weight, I am wondering if you could help me to find out about it.
176- ANSWER : Here, there is a certain deep specificity that only great initiated can conceive. In the Boghiat, its author, the great caliph sidi larbi benssayeh, advices to avoid any contact with the djinns, whatever their spiritual level, and not to have recourse to books, such as the one you referred to. But to have access to authentic books of the sharia and suna, you could ask yourself how you can possibly ensure the grand opening: the Sheikh had answered by stating that it is sufficient to follow the suna, the sharia, and their interpretation by the Sheikh in his Jawahir El Maani, and others. The depuration resulting from any authorized recitation of authentic prayers and dikrs, such as the wird and wadifa, in addition to the Koran, is regarded as the real catalyst that opens the path of success and security.


182- QUESTION : During a lesson that took place in a Zawiya, I heard the moqaddem explain that: each descendant of Sidi Ahmed Tijani is worth 40 ghaout. Is there any confusion between ghaout and qotb? It seemed to us, from the description of diwan essalihin, that there is only one ghaout, and that he can take the Prophets place (peace be upon him). Are there several ghaouts ?
182- ANSWER : With regard to spiritual grades of Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijanis descendants, Sidi Larbi Bensayeh stresses in his boghiat that, is to his knowledge, no reference confirms this. As to the sublime situation of ghaout, it is indeed unique in each period of time. His grade is the most sublime. Concerning the succession of ghaout to the prophet (peace be upon him), it seems that it is not always adequate, because in principle, and according to the Sufis, each ghaout has two deputies: one is always to his right, and the other to his left. It is the latter who replaces him after his death. Nobody can be a ghaout without passing by the grade of pole, ie qotb. There may be several qotbs at the same time. But, there may be, according to Sufis, one among them who has attained the rank of so-called stamp-stage (khatim al maqamate). And that is why some of the major qotbs were believed to have reached the higher grade khatm al maqamate, or even better, the stamp of saints reserved to qotb al maktoum.


185- QUESTION : Im finding it hard to explain my problem but I will try to go straight to the point. I am 28 years old and I often used to go to the zaouia of Sida Ahmed and Larbi Benssayeh in Rabat. Not so long ago, I took the road of the Tariqa of Sidi Ahmed and Im trying to be as assiduous as possible. My only problem is that I often masturbate to not commit adultery, but also because I have no choice at the moment. Only this is a real problem for my prayers, wirds and wadifa. Is there a tijani prayer to avoid having nocturnal pollutions janaba at night, or that would keep me from masturbating at night? To be honest, before taking the tariqa tijania, I would masturbate every night because I have not got the means to get married and I cant fast, as the Prophet (psl) advised me to, for health reasons. Plus, I cannot take a bath when I want to seeing as I still live with my parents and me and my father often fight about that. I believe in the tariqa but Im more and more scared. Help me solve this problem. Is there a douaa tijani to get married or to hurry marriage ?
185- ANSWER : In Islams view, nocturnal pollutions or janaba at night forms a kind of legitimate escape that reduces or at least limits the problems impact that incites you to commit an illegitimate act that is not only prohibited in Islam but that may cause serious misdeed in the end. The believer must then address the Divine Providence to save him from this practise. All dikrs remain executory in this state, and nothing stops you from going to the zaouia to do your dikrs. In such a case, good intention is both necessary and sufficient, as long as an effort is made to get away from it, even partially.

188- QUESTION : After having visited your website, I would like for you to talk about the tijani concept: is the fayda said by our master to be descending amongst his disciples at a conjonctural period ?
188- ANSWER : The fayda, meaning a (theophanique) manifestation to which certain soufis and tijanis allude to, is sometimes confused with the hal, felt in the center of the dikr. But, there are other exclusive dikrs because reserved for certain great elected, such as the khalife Omar Ibn Khattab, one of the Prophets companions (psl). The eminent Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani is one of these elected. Some of his companions may undergo the fortunate effect. As a complement to my answer, I certify to this situation of Jawahir Al Maani, but its meaning remains ambiguous concerning the people worthy of receiving the effect. This is what incited a few great masters of the tariqa to consider themselves as worth this gift, such as the Sheikh Ibrahim Niass from Kaoulakh in Senegal, who asserted that his brother Abdallah was a khalife, in a parallel direction the receptacle of the fayda.


189- QUESTION : Do you not think that this receptacle should be known by all tijani disciples, in order to get benefit of this emanation that Sidna Cheikh tijani has not only promised us but also described to us ?
189- ANSWER : All the theophanical manifestations should not be known in advance because they are meant to intervene when we least expect it. In any case, the one who is the receptacle must not make a statement to the others.


190- QUESTION : I have noticed that our worshipped master gives us indications concerning this emanation. Why would he give these indications if it had to intervene when we least expect it? I think that the kindness of this emanation (fayda) should be made the most of by all tijani disciples. I therefore find it hard to see that his depositary cannot state it. Is the prophetic seal not announced in advance ? And has he not proclaimed his depository out loud, so that we could recognize it and follow it ?
190- ANSWER : During the first four decades of their lives, the Prophets themselves wouldnt know that one day they would be prophets. They always wait for that transcendent flow, which is the revelation by the means of Gabriel. Moreover, the saint elects, whatever their grade. As for the Cheikh Tijani, he only realised his real grade after a certain age. This sublime situation can be detected by certain symptoms, to allow the case of need to the future depositary to spread a certain effort and to be up to a possible ancestry. Sometimes, the future depositary faces on the contrary some unlucky situations, like the Prophet Josephs case. To one day become the receptacle of a certain grade does not imply an anticipated knowledge. The reciprocal is real.


194- QUESTION : I am faqir ila ALLAH, mourid of the Tariqa Derqawiia/harraqiia in Morocco. I am interested in the history of Sufism in general, and Morocco in particular. I have a question concerning the Tijani order. I read that only one recitation of the salat al fatihi equals 6000 recitations of the whole Koran, and that the recitation of jawharat al kamal is worth 20 salat al fatihi. I do not want to criticize, but my logic can not understand this. I would be very grateful if you could help me clarify this matter. I can not believe that a brotherhood (the tijani in this case), which participated in the islamisation of Africa, can be classified as do the antitijanis.
194- ANSWER : Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani mentioned this issue in jawahir al maani. The recitation of the Koran by a believer, who understands the meaning and applies the high directives of the Koran, is the best dikrs. In the same category, we have those who read and do not understand, but apply the concept. The third type is those who recite the Koran to knowingly act against its principles and, according to a hadith, is cursed by his sublime author ALLAH. As to Sheikh Tijani and other Muslim authorities, it would be better for this sinner to read any dikr instead of the Koran to avoid being cursed by Allah. Among these great authorities, there is the grand Ibn hajar Al haytami. Here of course, it is not a matter of 6000, which is a symbolic figure, because the serious sin suffered by such heretical figure is out numbered. But, for a true tijani, the eminent sheikh Sidi AhmedTtijani, at least two hizbs must be read per day, i.e. 1/30 of the Koran. It is regarded as an essential element in the wird and the wadifa. As to the replacement of the jouhara by the salat al fatihi 20 times, according to a statement by sheikh Sidi Amed Tijani, which is based on spiritual data, that we can hardly analyse in our answer.


195- QUESTION : I would like to know if there is a French translation of Jawahir Al Maani and if so, where could I get it. If it doesnt exist where could I get this book in Arabic? Even though I do not master the language, I will make an effort.
195- ANSWER : Jawahir Al Maani (perls of the ideas) has never been translated into French apart from a few extracts, and an Italian translation by the Moqqadem Abdessamad. As for the Arabic text with in marge Arrimah (the lances) from the Senegalese Sidi Omar Al Fouty, it has been published by Dar Al Fikr in two volumes with no date indicated.


196- QUESTION : I would like to know the masters of Sidi Ahmed Tijani bi assanadi al mouttassil ila hadrati rassouli Allah salla Allahou alaihi wa sallam ?
196- ANSWER : The essential transmission channel (sanad) belongs to Sidi Mahmoud Al Kourdy, one of the sufi cheikhs from Cairo that Cheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani had known during his pass by in Egypt for the pilgrimage in the Mecca. Sidi Ahmed Tijani had contacted many cheikhs and sufi masters in Morocco and elsewhere, cited by Sidi Larbi Benssayeh, in his Boghiat published in Cairo for the first time in 1304 of the hegira. But they were only temporary masters because the real cheikh of Sidi Ahmed Tijani, like many great Sufism cheikhs, is ALLAHs messenger, Sidna Mohammed (SS).


203- QUESTION : Is Sidi Larbi Benssayeh contemporain of Cheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani? If so, then for how long did they live together ?
203- ANSWER : Sidi Larbi Benssayeh is born in Meknes in 1229 of the hegira, meaning a year before the death of Cheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani in 1230.


204- QUESTION : Could you prove that the tariqa tijania is a sunnite way ?
204- ANSWER : The tijani way is a spiritual path whose concepts and behaviours are based on the two initial sources of the charia (the Koran and the Sounna). The main proof is that the wird and the wadifa, recited twice a day, only include the dikrs (prayers) extracted from the Koran or the Prophets (psl) hadiths. Other dikrs are founded on the same bases. To be sure of this, you can refer to a doctrinal work of the tariqa: Sidi Larbi Benssayehs Boghiat Al Moustafid, meaning: someone who wishes to understand.


205- QUESTION : This is my request: I want to know everything that Sheikh Sidi Amed Tijani said about the Prophet ISSA, in his book Jawahir Al Maani . It is an issue close to my heart, and I would like to learn more. Could you translate these concerned passages if you have time ?
205- ANSWER : The following is an extract of the text itself, followed by an interpretation adapted in French :



These is what was written in the book : Jawahir Al Maani about Sidna ISSA , and Saidatuna Miriam (this is what was mentioned in the book JAWAHER AL MAANI about Jesus and Miriam) :

... .... : : ѡ . ( .. 123)
... ... : ... : ͡ " " (.. 146)
.. " ( 42) .. :" " ..( .. 153)

Words of sidna Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani on the eminent messenger of ALLAH Jesus, son of Mary, inserted in his book Jawahir Al Maani (pages 123 and 146), can be summarized as follows : the profecy and rissalah (as a devine message) are a result of sublime theophanic divine event, that the cosmos in its fullness, can not bear, that is why any prophet or messenger of ALLAH, would not be worthy to assume the high mission before reaching the age of wise maturity, that is to say the forties, but Jesus was elected as a prominent promotor in this sublime mission, much earlier, at the age of thirty years old. In this option ALLAH found his rationale in the dual nature of human and angelic Jesus, born of the breath of the holy spirit( Gabriel), in the matrix of Miriam. Some might be tempted to imagine that the prophet Sidana Mohammed, a natural offpring, would be taxed in a certain weakness, driven by the belonging to thehuman biology. The secret of this explanatory statement is ALLAH, thinks to his omnipotence, had replacedthe apparent fact by his supremely blow generator.


206- QUESTION : First of all, let me give tribute to your piece of work and the precious information. I am a descendant of Hadj Omar Tall and I am impressed by the life of this great man. I am researching his life and his work. I would like to know if there are authentic pictures of him, how many children he had (many as I know), who is the last of his children to have lived and is the book of the late Thierno Mountaga Tall: the rare pearls of the life of Hadj Omar translated into French ?
206- ANSWER :
I know two elaborated works on the life of Hadj Omar Tall, such as :

  • a study entitled: El hadj Omar of Founta (Sultan of the Tijani state in western Africa), printed by Zouia Tijania of Cairo (Hussein el- Ghrabline-n9)
  • a story about the miracles of El hadj Omar, entitled aqd el joman wa ed dourar by Ahmed el Adnani (manuscript at the national library of Paris n 5559 and 5734).

As to Sheikh Montaga Tall, recently deceased, I have visited him in Dakar. He was kind enough to read to me some extracts of his work (still manuscript) about his grand father. One of his children was also with him. The eminent Montaga Tall had confided in me his desire to publish his work under the auspices of the Moroccan ministry of Habous and Islamic affairs. As to his father, Said en Nour Tall, I also came to know him. It is him who had granted, among others, the permission to integrate the Tijani order through his own channel of transmission, written especially by my friend Si Abdelaziz Sy, general caliph of Tijanis at Dakar, and signed by the eminent sheikh Tall himself. Si abdelaziz Sy then took me for this to the caliph during one of the tijani journeys, commemorated at the end of December each year. For years, I had participated in these journeys which allowed the gathering of hundreds of millions of Tijanis, coming from all parts of Senegal and neighbouring countries. For these occasions, I had done communications and lectures about nature, the objective, the impact and scope of this social and sunite way.


209- QUESTION : I sometimes fall asleep a few seconds into my recitation of the wird. In the mean time, negative images come to my mind that disturbs me in my dikr. I see dogs, a chopped head, someone slamming a door. What should I do ?
209- ANSWER : The best way to concentrate during the dikr is to be in a state where the soul must be well purified and the heart well saturated by normally balanced sleep. Here, the authentic hadith of the Prophet (psl) intervenes who incites us to undertake a dikr only after having slept the full amount of normal time and to start the dikr when the spirit is well restored. In case despite the spread effort in wakefulness, the believers responsibility wouldnt be taken into account. Quite the contrary, a sacred hadith specifies that Allah glorifies himself, addressing his angels when he sees one of his servants struggling with sleep.


211- QUESTION : It is with great pleasure that I discover your website, and I recommended it to many of my mourid friends. The site is superb, the references and orientations are correct. I seize this opportunity to find out if you have any data concerning Sidi Brahim Ryahi (works, encyclopaedia, life ).
211- ANSWER : Sidi Ahmed Ryahi of Tunisian nationality, a great caliph of Sidi Ahmed Tijani and at the same time Sheikh of Islam of North Africa. Many works had reported the sublime events of his career as a great mufti, a venerable professor at the University of Zaitouna at Tunis, and great Sufi figure. Among references of his biography are the Boghiat of Sidi Larbi Benssayeh, Kachf Al Hijab of Sidi ahmed Skirej, and plenty of information cited in the work of one of his descendants.

212- QUESTION : I would like to ask you certain questions related to masters and spiritual orders. No one ignores the fact that Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani was a great spiritual and authentic teacher, but a big number of people pretend that other contemporary Sheikhs are also great in terms of spiritual realisations. Nowadays in Morocco, there is an order which I am not going to cite and is becoming more and more influential. What is your opinion ?
212- ANSWER : Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani has never pretended that his state of pole of poles or stamp of saints would mean that there would never be spiritual and imminent personalities after him, whose state would reach the most sublime of states. But the meaning of pole of poles is there will never be a Sheikh of similar eminence, thus, the door remains open for all the potentially elected of ALLAH.

213- QUESTION : What can you say about the understanding levels (les niveaux d'entendements) ? What are their own characteristics ? Which books can you advice me to look at ?
213- ANSWER : You are asking questions of great scale and the answer will require long speeches on the potential events of such process. It is the answer to this issue which had incited me to ask myself questions whose precepts of analysis are reflected in my book the rational of the sacred (see link of this work in my site : Here all the elements forming the principal or secondary components of the rational have been detected. You will undoubtedly find through dozens of answers in this work a certain light to which I can possibly explain certain beams, in case you come across any ambiguity.

214- QUESTION : I have learnt the Tijani wird of a moqadem but I have come to realize that this moqadem was making the takfir of great walis among who are Ibrahim Niass and Ahmadou Bamba. Following advice of a wise man, I have stopped to practice the wird because how can a moqadem transmit something by transgressing a condition of an order, which is to respect dead and living saints. I have a doubt because Sidi Ahmed Tijani said that the one who would give up the wird would be apostasied. I am scared, and I would like to know what you think about this matter.
214- ANSWER : I am convinced that that Shiekh Ibrahim Niass, whom I had known very well and with whom I had a relationship for decades, could not be qualified of such a thing. You should never trust gossiping of some or others without concrete and adequate proofs. What you should do is to renew the authorisation of the dikr without any prejudice against some and others.

215- QUESTION : It is with sadness that I and my wife come to know the hard conditions in which live some members of Sidna Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani. These families should be the subject of regular visits to make up for this deplorable situation. All houses of the order will be incited to these megas zyaras. The Senegalese example is edifying in the matter as it is rich in education, and perfect in mobilisation. Our couple is to be included in this action of solidarity. Therefore, we propose to initiate even camps so that the travellers of all horizons converge with their presents at the occasion of receiving and of resourcing at our highly blessed places. Thank you for drawing our attention to such ordeal of our great sheikhs family. At last allow me to make by writing the informational relay (of 2000 visitors, whereas we are dozens of millions). It will be, in chaallah, largely spread and retransmitted (zawiya, dahiras, medresa, sites, blog, mails, etc). We should all join in. In the meantime, would you communicate a number of bank accounts or an address for a western union transfer or any other similar structure? Compassion and support to disadvantageous families. Thank you and compliments to your fadila.
215- ANSWER : Thank you for your touching attention and good intention, to have thought as we have done for the family of the great Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani, notably needy people that require a constant and generous care. For practical reasons, we have tried for some years to tackle the problems in order to achieve adequate and efficient solutions. First of all, we have classified the needy members who live among us in Morocco. We have set a complete list with the needs. We have made a very limited call within our own Tijani family who fortunately include dozens of initiated and sympathizers to take parting the process of supplying this fund which reached 40.000 dhs during the first years, to 350.000 dhs this year. Since 4 years ago, a number of the sheikh descendants receive sums of money which go up according to their needs. We have since the beginning of the year 2007 extended the level of this generosity by making appeal to all Tijanis in the world, and indicating to benevolent donators references of bank accounts of these Tijani families. This gesture has given some results although they were slow. These are the first practical steps which will be strengthened in the future by new processes. May you be warmly thanked.

216- QUESTION : I would like to take this opportunity to ask you more about your relations with Cheikh Al Islam, El Hadj Ibrahim Niass. Your note in Arabic on the subject on the website talks very little of it. We have been told that you have worked together and also with Sheikh Mohammed Al Hafid Al Misry on Jawahir Al Mans authentication. Do you confirm this? If so, how is it going with this essential tahqiq. It seems that there are still errors in an edition on the Senegalese market. We beg for you to save this tourth in memory of your two famous brothers and friends.
216- ANSWER : I have known the eminent Sheikh El Islam Ibrahim Niass for four decades. I used to go once a month every year to assist the Tidjanes days at the end of the year. The Imam Niasshas always sent me his own car from Kaolack to spend a few days in a pavilion contiguous to his. We used to share happy times, full of theophanic bursts and cultural/spiritual exchanges. I have always considered him as a great emeritus chief who took grace in his wide knowledge, his tact with no peer and his luminescent taste in shaking and purifying the hearts of the initiated and sympathizers, whose number goes up to over fifteen million (without taking into account the new neophytes). On the scientific and soufi plan, his transmission channels detect the authenticity and the touch-up of the blossoming sources of our Imam. I had the pleasure of detecting a true symbiosis in the chains that link Ibrahim Niass, Abdelaziz Sy (the general khalif in Dakar) and myself. All three of us have a great master in common, the great Sheikh Abdelaziz Belcadi from Casablanca, contacted by our Imam whilst spending nights with him each time he was in Morocco. A second chain leads us to the great khalif Sidi Omar El Fouty and through him, to the Sheikh Tijani, through eminent moqaddams such as Sad En-Nour and Mohammed-Tal, Sidi Omars son. The Imam Niass used to refer to me as he did to reread his manuscript on the Zemzmi and to help print it out. Concerning Jawahir El Maani (perls of the ideas) of Sidi Ali Harazem, the Imam sent me an epistle, which I am sending a copy of to you, about the problem raised about the origin of certain passages. It turns out we have this manuscript, the original he got from An Madi, and I have the certified manuscript in accordance with the original by Sidi Larbi Ben Sayyeh. I couldnt explain everything on other exchanges between, being more private, and mainly on the lighting effect of our intimate contact, where the strong interior remains the only catalyst.


228- QUESTION : When you find faithful people doing the wadifa, for example on the salatoul fatihi, how do we get into the wadifa ?
228- ANSWER : According to Sidi Larbi Benssayeh in his Boghiat, there are many ways to start the wadifa or the wird. It must be started after the bassmala, adding the sourat of the Koran Al Fatiha. Otherwise we can start with the verse of the Koran: wa ma toukaddimou li anfousikoum min khayrin tajidouhou inda Allahi khayran wa aadam ajra, inna Allaha ghafouroum rajim''.

229- QUESTION : I am a tijani disciple (alhamdulilah) and I would like to have an answer to avoid my waswas scattering. Ive had waswas about the tariqa of Sidi Ahmed Tijani and his sincerity. Without accepting his thoughts sometimes doubtful and strongly reject them without exposing them out loud while praying to God to save me from these doubts, to make me love Sidna Cheikh and to believe in him and his words. Has this not come out of the tariqa? So I am basically asking if the waswas, who is sometimes abject towards the Sheikh and the voice, gets me out of the tariqa. Could you renew my pact and thus give me your silsila ?
229- ANSWER : One day, the Prophet Sidna Mohammeds companions came to see him to speak about some doubts which made them perplexed. The prophet asked them what they felt about these doubts, they answered that they felt an inner bitterness and a cruel fear, which is crystallized by a psychic excitement. The prophet reassured them, specifying that this is a sign of conviction and faith. Concerning the order, I can not renew the pact by e-mail, but if you come to Morocco, we will talk about this.

230- QUESTION : What is Latif Al Akbar ?
230- ANSWER : Latif Al Akbar is the latif resulting from the multiplication of 129, which constitutes the first term of latif multiplied by itself and the rest equally by itself to reach the latif Akbar. But there is a reduced latif where all the multiplications are concentrated, but this needs a special authorization to be recited.


231- QUESTION : While doing the wird, is it possible to recite 50 of Salatu alanaby and 50 of Salatoul fatihi? He had the intention to do the wird with 100 Salatoul Fatihi, but he made a mistake about two of Salatoul fatihi. He recited two salatu alanaby instead. Does he have to rectify, if yes how ?
231- ANSWER : According to the modality mentioned by the Sheikh, the disciple should choose between the fatihi and shorter salat. In case he does it on purpose, he has to redo the wird, otherwise he has to compensate by adding a redemption which is 100 times of Istighfar.


232- QUESTION : I have read a translation of a passage of the noble book Jawahir al- Maani concerning the pole (degree of pole of our noble Fatima Az- Zouhra ( may God accept her) about the pole , our master Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tidjani ( may God accept him) said : he is the most excellent of all the Muslims in every era , apart from any keys of the treasures( maftuh kunuz) that my exist , for he is superior to them in some respects , and they are superior ton him in some respects source : . I have read somewhere else: the knowledgeable of God are part of the universe of authority, each one of them has the strength of 1000 men, the strength of the pole of poles is 1500 men, the strength of four poles of the singularity is of 700 men, and the strength of keys of treasuries, each one of them possesses2000 men Could you inform me about the possible precisions brought by our master Ahmed at Tijani (may god accept him) and his representatives (may God accept them) or send me information in relation with this issue ?
232- ANSWER : Concerning the exactness that you have asked about the pole , mafatih el kounouz and forces given by God to some and others , references are of two kinds : the first one is of a theological order and canonically doctrinal , is specified in the books of the well known scholars of Islam , among them Ibn Hajar the commentator of Sahih el Boukhary who quotes some hadiths in these circumstances , as to the Sufi scholars , they are unamumous about this issue ; particularly some such as the writer of rissala al qouchairiya , Abdelkrim ibn Hawazine , sheikh Zerrouq the mouhtassib of Sufis and imam Ac- chaarany in his tabaqates : their essential sources are not authenticated in the ordinary chains of transmission ; the case of lalla Fatima Zahra is a special one , because she has never known menses which constitute for the other women one of the reasons which stop them to reach the stage of qoutbanya ; there are two kinds of citations , those which are the foundation of the behaviour of the initiated sufi, for which the authentication of the reference is a must ,and for those concerning some data where both the authentic source and the disruptive mobile are missed , the only reference in the circumstances , is the reception of the Sufi sheikhs by some and others, from the mouth even of the prophet, which is seen as a secret information; these are some hadiths which are not apocryphal according to the norms of the traditionalists , but which join the chains of specific transmission , between the prophet and sheikhs , in a manner that if Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani , pole of the poles and the prophets caliph, reports to us information by this bias , the sheikh s reference is undoubted ; he was always considered by his contemporaries in Morocco and around the Islamic world, as a dignified reference, without being supported by other references , I quote here the case of the great imam Badre Eddine Al Hammoumy a scholar at the Qaraouine and a contemporary of the sheikh , although he was not a Tijani , he had the opportunity to present one of his books to the great scholar Ali el- Mily a lecturer at al Azhar University , the latter , astonished to see el Hammoumy referring only to Sheikh Tijanis statements, about a citation he added in his comment of al mourchid al mouine , Al Hammoumy made it clear that the sheikh is seen as being the authentic reference , ; another case is about the meeting of the most imminent scholars in Morocco , during studies of the hadith under the aegis of sultan Moulay Slimane where sheikh Tayeb Benkirane , chairman of this royal council came up with some words that the sheikh refuses to admit , the sultan intervenes in order to arbitrate, asking Sheikh Tijani to answer back ; here the sheikh refuted, what was said in this issue by one of the greatest exegete of the coran, Azzamakhchary , and the sheikh added that a manuscript of this exegete can be found in the Zarhouns library ; they have thus brought the manuscript which authenticates the Sheikhs statements; It is to confirm if needed , that the sheikh Tijani is considered on his own , in all cases as the reference . For more information, the translation into French of large extracts of Jawahir Al Maany was included in our site.


233- QUESTION : First of all, I would like to thank you for a well done site, and which is a rich source of information. In the column questions/ Answers and precisely question 131 about the Dalail AL Khairat, you have named the Tijani catalogue which is a group of authorised Adhkars, in the Tijani order by Prophet Sidna Mohammed (Sallallahou Alayhi WA Salam) to Sheikh Ahmed Tijani. I think that it contains the Adhkars such as Hizb Bahr, Hizb as sayfi and others, for which an authorization from an authentic Moqadem is needed I would like to know the adhkars included Tijani catalogue if possible ?
233- ANSWER : Your question about the Tijani catalogue, i.e.: the whole of the horizons includes the authorized Dikhrs to the Sheikh given by the Prophet Sidna Mohamed. This catalogue does include specific horizons related to the order, as to those which are not included such as hisb Bahr or Hisb as- sayfi they require a special authorisation.


234- QUESTION : I mix with a practising person of the Tijani order, a good Muslim; this has incited me to do some researches about this order. I will not talk about the way Dikrs are done, which is deeply criticized by Salafists, and the latter indicate that these practises have nothing to do with Suna and the prophet way of life. What actually has staggered me is the following: A salafist says that the Tijani order has played a major role, and helped the French colonisation to settle in Algeria, towards the end of the 18th century. he says that a woman, whom he mentioned her name was able to infiltrate the Zaouia, and became the wife of his founder Sidi Ahmed tijani, and then the wife of his brother Sidi Ali, after the death of Sidi Ahmed, this woman became adored by the Tijani followers to the point that the latter got the earth in which she walks on, in order to use it for the Tayamoum. This salafist equally reported that Sidi Ali would have said in a speech to help France the friend of our hearts to settle among us ! And he equally reported that this woman was given a medal by the French colonial authorities for the services she rendered to them. Thank you for enlighten these statements, Will God guide us to the right path ?
234- ANSWER : The real Sufism is not only conceived through the permanent attachment of the believer to he charia throwing out everything that any the Mohammadian thinking. it is in this luminescent atmosphere of the prophet and his companions , that hearts have been revitalized, this has lasted three centuries; through the spontaneous lighting stages, believers who are looking for the transcendence and consent of God , muttered with litanies, taken from the Koran and hadith where the appearance of inveterate scholars , such as El jounaid and his colleagues who endeavoured to proclaim that mohamadian Sufism is nothing but a double source of the charia ( Koran and hadith) . some apocryphal eccentricities started to mispresent the salafist thinking , all the way through the medieval period , but Sufism , despite of its fissure remains a catalyst , which incites the westerners and others to react against the confraternities, , in addition to that the tijani follower , among others , receives from his moqadem from the xviiith century , the rosary , symbol of double struggle against the bad propensity of the corrupted soul , on one hand , and against the western occupation on the other hand . the great leader Emir Chakib Arsalan , after having tested the beneficial contribution of the Sufi groups , he referred to the books of some great western historians , such as G. Maury , in order to confirm that Africa would have been entirely an Islamic region , without the influence of France against the tijani order; this , he added , could be compared o the islamization momentum of Europe stopped in Poitiers by Charles martel . A. Lechatelier, mentioned it also in his book Islam in the western Africa ( p 189) . The outstanding scholar Mohammed Jabir sheikh of al-azhazr University in Cairo, underlined in his comment of Al-ghazalis book a al-mouqid mina ad dalal (edition. Beyrouth P 52), that without the tijani order in north Africa , French colonialism would have shred the dogma of Islam in these countries . Sheikh tijani , born in Ain Madi , who was part of Moroccan province, during year 1150h, started , since his young age , to fight against the Turkish occupation, from 1171 1757 , he was forced to leave his hometown , under the repeated acts of violence of the bey of Oran Mohammed ben Otman , at the age of 54 sheikh continues to be chased by the Turkish authorities , he settled in fes in 1213 h-1798 . His influence became bigger at Ain Madi and at eastern Sahara, and worried the Turkish government, which went to the point to impose a tribute at Ain Madi in 1185h 1785. After the death of Sheikh Tijani in 1230h-1814, his eldest son Sidi Mohammed El- Kebir carried on his fight against the Turks. The Turkish administrator in Algeria Mohammed Bey strived to tear off Ain Madi from the Alawite dynasty. The fighter Sidi Mohammed El habib comforted by hid fathers followers went to AL-Ouarss (Mascara) in the Moroccan Sahara to fight against the Turkish invaders, a hounded fight, which was mortal for him and for his 300 companions. His brother Mohammed El- Habib , who was in the pilgrimage , went back to Ain Madi where another Turkish administrator , the prefect of Oran , has already controlled some 400 inhabitants of the region of laghouat and he incarcerated them ; the famous fighter Emir Abd-el-Kader Al- Jazaiiri , while fighting against the French wanted then to make Ain Madi a centre of gathering his troops , Mohammed el Habib as a Moroccan citizen provided the emir with arms and subvention , supporting his war against the French, coming from Ain Madi , in order to take part in the struggle , but on the 28th of rabie of year 1238h-1822, the emir making use of the martyr Sidi Mohammed el- kebir besieged Ain Madi instead of defending the cherif and the whole population ; the two parties came to an agreement for a retreat of 8 miles ( 12.5 km) below the small fortress ; the tijani family remains then as in the past in their fief ancestral . France , which occupied then the capital with the region of Oran , recognized the authority of the emir over two third of the country( in conformity with treaties of 1834 and 1837) Sidi Mohammed el- Habib felt engaged by the act of allegiance vis a vis the emir of el Mouminine , sultan of morocco,, and betrayed by the emir , refused to help him out ( a correspondence is held in the archives of Ain Madi certifies these facts according to touhfat azz-ir of Mohammed ben Abd-el-Kader al-jazairi, edition , Beirut 1964); the khamlichiya zaouiya in the Rif region did also stop all kind of help, isolated , the emir started again the fight in 1839 , thinks to the support of the sultan of Morocco and both the tijanyia and khamlichiya zaouias , in 1843 , defeated beaten by the duke of aumale , went to Morocco , the Moroccan sovereign also defeated one year later in the battle of isly , the emir ended up surrendering in 1847 , while these events were taking place cherif sidi Mohammed el- Habib died in 1269h- 1852 , the son of the emir , Mohammed ben Abd-el-Kader , paid a tribute to him, for his brotherly behaviour , toward the emir , and continued his challenge against the invaders . Sidi Mohammed El- Habib left two sons : Sidi Ahmed Ammar and Sidi Mohammed El Bachir whom the occupiers did not stop provoking them , and pushed them back to France , before , sidi Ahmed Ammar , aged 16 was taken for a whole year in a forced residence in Algiers , in France he married the young Aurelie according to the Islamic norms before a Tunisian judge( see la tijaniya of professor Benabdallh p121), which summarises everything related to this young girl , who became a fervent believer, and detached of all unstitched jumble she was accused of ).the vice tightened up , then around the young Tijani sidi Ahmed Ammar , who is the nephew of our great Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Tijani , and not himself . France was then threatened in western Africa by the intervention of a tijani brother, Sultan Si Omar EL- Fouti, who attacked the French occupier Faidherbe (1854-1865). The whole African continent (north and west) is then against France. As to your second question which deals with the words of praise pronounced in tribute to France by Sherif Sidi Mohammed El- Kabir the son of Sidi El Bachir and the nephew of the great Sheikh. the Arabic magazine AL- Fath, run by El Khatib in Cairo has published the text of the speech extracted by fahmi Safouane from a French magazine, the speech in question was pronounced during a ceremony organised under the aegis of the French colonel , in charge of the occupied party of Algeria, during the era of Emir Abd-el-Kader Al- Jazairi, it is during this ceremony that the pseudo- speech was delivered by Sidi Mohammed El- Kabir, but the latter is the son of Sidi El Bachir , who fought against France, which incarcerated him, for seven years, Sidi Mohamed El- kabir , during this time was not born yet,, as it was noticed by the Egyptian scholar sidi Mohammed El- Hafid , Sheikh of the Tijani order in Egypt,; who had a moral obligation to get in touch of Sidi Mohammed El- Kebir , in order to find out about the reality of this event , the Sherif was categorical in his answer , and made it clear that he despatched to the Arabic magazine through Sidi Mohammed El hafid a message which denied the existence of any speech and even any participation in this ceremony which he became aware of it by means of the article published in his magazine; this magazine published the letter of disavowal sent by Sidi Mohammed El Kebir himself, but through another person in French , pretending doing it using the name of the sherif , who reiterated his denunciation ,and asserting to have delegated nobody to represent him. in the same context ,the Egyptian scholar denounced in his book al-intissafv ( edition Cairo 1352h- 1932) all the events mentioned above and denounced equally by the sherif ; the Egyptian scholar mentioned in his book the untruthful information which is clearly which made sidi Ahmed Ammar the real great sheikh tijani of fes , and which mixed up sidi El bachir with sidi Mohammed el- kabir , to whom he gave the wrong name of Ali.


235- QUESTION : I am in the process of reading the Wadifa (pearl of perfection), and I am lucky to have bought a year ago a book entitled which explains it perfectly. As to me I do find it strong, so I have a headache when I read it. I have felt it has the meaning of a book full of light, that I had the vision of it long before you have authorised me to get hold of, am I authorised equally to advice it to my fiends who already recite the Tijani wird ?
235- ANSWER : The recitation of Jawhara has a great effect, which you have to assume the burden , by two means : on one hand try hard with perseverance to purify yourself, and on the other hand , to make use of the simulated presence of the sheikh with the company of the person who supervises the prayer , in order to be based on the flux, and to assume perfectly the effects , concerning the second question : you should advice your tijani friends to follow suit the same behaviour.


236- QUESTION : I would like to know if thee is a genuine picture of Mawlana Sheikh Ahmed Tijani, and if yes I would like to have one ?
236- ANSWER : There is no such picture of Sheikh Sidi ahmed Tijani , he died year 1230 h , whereas he first pictures were taken in 1840 which corresponds with year 1255 h .; but there is a picture of Sidi Ahmed Ammar Tijani , the sheikhs nephew available in some sites of the order.